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Love and Hate---on the Theme of Wuthering Heights

Viewed 52 times2018-10-28 08:13

Love and Hate---on the Theme of Wuthering Heights

Thesis Statement

Love and hate are always the main idea in Wuthering Heights and this paper will use two kinds of love and two kinds of hate to analyze the deep roots of hatred.


Ⅰ. Introduction

Ⅱ. Two Kinds of Love

A. The Love between Healthcliff and Catherine

B. The Love between Hareton and Cathy

Ⅲ. Two Kinds of Hate

A. The Hate between Healthcliff and Catherine

B. The Hate between Healthcliff and Catherine’s Brother

Ⅳ. The Reasons of Hate

A. Love

B. The Social Estate System

C. Selfishness in Human Nature

Ⅴ. Conclusion

Love and Hate---on the Theme of Wuthering Heights


Emily Bronte was born July 30, 1818, at Thornton in Yorkshire. Both of Emily’s parents had literary learning. Her mother published one essay and her father wrote four books. Her father was a Cambridge who was an educated clergyman and was born in Ireland. When Emily was two years old, her father was named to a church in Haworth. It was a remote village in Yorkshire, and they spent most of their rest life there. Even if scenery was satisfying, it was too cold and damp for people to live. Thus, because of the bad climate and living conditions,
her mother and her sisters all died of illness.

It is known that Emily was one of the most famous English novelist and poet in the nineteenth century of English literature. Many people speak highly of Wuthering Heights. It is impossible to lay it aside afterwards and say nothing about it (Waston 243). Now she is best remembered for her first and famous novel Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights is a class of English literature. Emily began writing poems at an early age, and in 1846 she published twenty—one poems, together with poems by Ann and Charlotte. Emily died of tuberculosis on December 19, 1848, also at the age of thirty. It is said that she had never fallen in love with anyone, however she had already understood love and talked about it and got into it most vivid love story.

Wuthering Heights has suffered winds and rains for more than one hundred years since it comes into being. Chitham once said that Wuthering Heights is a graph of the inner country of Emily’s dream. This process can sufficiently prove its deep social significance(黄晓燕55). There are two families Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange which are talked about in the novel Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights is a scared world more than a farm house. It stands for freedom and wildness. Wuthering Heights is now wildly known to be one of the greatest English novels. It is also true to say that Wuthering Heights had to wait along time before it was recognized. Wuthering Heights is a story of passion, evil, and violence. In Wuthering Heights, Emily Bronte tells a story about two mainly aspects; One aspect is the love between Heathcliff and Catherine and the other aspect is why Heathcliff’s heart is filled with revenge and how he make his revenge go on.

Mr. Earnshaw who is a Yorkshire farmer and owner of Wuthering Heights brings home an orphan. The young boy is named Heathcliff and lives with the Earnshaw family. Heathcliff and the Earnshaw daughter, Catherine, develop a close relationship, however, the Earnshaw son, Hindley, hates him. Because Heathcliff has took Hindley`s place in Mr. Earnshaw`s heart. To stay away from Hindley and enjoy themselves, Heathcliff and Catherine often go to moors to have a good time. After Mr. Earnshaw`s death, Hindley comes back home and does what he can do to ruin Heathcliff. Heathcliff has gone through most since Mr. Earnshaw died. Heathcliff and Catherine play happily on moors until they come across the Lintons, Edgar and his sister Isabella. Soon Catherine makes friends with Edgar and Isabella, and they get along well. Edgar falls in love with Catherine and asks her to marry him. Catherine tells Nelly the thing and says that she can never marry Heathcliff even though she loves him very much. Heathcliff hears that and leaves away. After three years, Catherine and Edgar get married. At the same Heathcliff comes back and he is a rich man now. Heathcliff begins to revenge what he has suffered. In order to revenge, Heathcliff wants to control of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange and to destroy everything Edgar has own dear. But he must wait 17 years. Finally, Heathcliff control of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. After his success, Heathcliff’s heart has suffered most, he misses Catherine deeply. He lives without heart. One day he can not bear this at all, so he kills himself at last. At the end of the novel Heathcliff and Catherine are united in death, while Hareton and Cathy

are going to be united in marriage.

Ⅱ. Two Kinds of Love

A. The love between Catherine and Heathcliff

It is known that love is the most beautiful and magical thing in the world. Millions of people are so crazy about it. What is love on the earth? What are the feelings of love? There is a saying that a good love can make people see the whole world, but a sad love can make people lose the whole world! Only can the people who once love someone know the really feelings of love. The hurt of love may be kept in the bottom of one’s heart forever. Hurt is hurt, and it will be the hurt forever no matter how far the time goes. Let us focus on the love between Catherine and Heathcliff.

From reading Wuthering Heights, we can know that the love between Catherine and Heathcliff is very special love even though they are natural people. When they are children, they are good friends. They help each other when the other is in needed. When Catherine’s brother beats Heathciff, she helps Heathciff in time. They are always playing in moors. Moors is like their paradise. There are many beautiful memories of childhood. Moors gives them nothing but happiness and love. With time going, they become lovers. Their relation shifting plays an important role in their life.

Young Catherine “was much too fond of Heathcliff, the greatest punishment we could invent for her was to keep separate from him” (Bronte 50) Catherine’s love to Heathcliff likes this

“my miseries in this world have been Heathcliff’s miseries, and I watched and felt from the beginning: my great thought in living is himself. If all perished, and he remained, I should still continue to be; and if all else remained, and we were annihilated, the universe would turn to a mighty stranger; I should not seem a part of it. My love for Linton is like the foliage in the woods: time will change it, I’m well aware, as winter changes the trees. My love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rock beneath; a source of little visible delight, but necessary. Nelly, I am Heathcliff! He is always, always in my mind; not as a pleasure, any more than I am always a pleasure to myself, but as my own being.”(Bronte 105)

How crazy she is! Her love to Heathcliff is in such an amazing way. It is also one of the most romantic love scripts of the world literature. In facing of this kind of love and such a combining of life and death, any other kind of love will lose its color completely. She seems almost the spirit of nature itself,dynamic, irresistible, unknowable, but never wantonly destructive (Duthie 245). She loves Heathcliff so deeply that she regards him as her other self, her life, her misery, her happiness, and her whole world.

But her love changes since she meets Edgar. After she stays at Thrushcross Grange five weeks, her appearance and inside thought has changed. Her manner has much been improved. When she sees the black and dirty Heathcliff, she realizes exactly that there is a widening social gap between them. She says to Nelly that she will never marry Heathcliff. She knows that she will not have any wealth if she marries Heathcliff. Heathcliff hears her words and is hurt deeply by her. He says nothing but to goes away.

After three years Catherine marries Edgar, at the same time Heathcliff also returns and becomes handsome and rich. Heathcliff’s return brings her not only comfort but also harassment and a difficult position. To Heathcliff, their love has lost since he leaves Wuthering Heights. His heart is filled with suffering and hate. In order to get balance, they begin to hurt each other. It is not a long time that Catherine is ill and eats nothing. She says to Nelly “I wish I were a girl again, half savage and hardly, and free; and laughing at injuries, not maddening under them!”(Bronte 163) Catherine truly realizes what she has lost. She will lose her life because of her wrong choice. When she is dying, she goes to moors to look for Heathcliff in dark and rainy night. As if she knows Heathcliff is right here waiting for her. Finally, she died with a smile. Only can death make her release from the struggle and pains. Only can death make her love keep forever. Only can death make her gets freedom forever. After her death, Heathcliff loses his heart and soul and dies with her in union. Catherine and Heathcliff’s love withered in bud while it has no chance to blossom. Pain and pleasure is main theme of love and is that of life.

B. The love between Hareton and Cathy

Someone’s love is sweet, but someone’s is bitter. Our life is just like that. Emily has told us that in the story of Wuthering Heights. The love between Catherine and Heathcliff is like fog, ice and fire. But we may say that the love between Hareton and Cathy must be flower and moonlight, gentle, tender, and fragrant. Love is very great and it can give us power, courage, and happiness. With love we can defeat evil and hate. We can find that in the love of second generation about Hareton and Cathy.

It is doubt that Hareton has suffered much which is similar to Heathcliff’s. When he is born, his mother dies because of giving birth to him. So his father who likes his mother deeply begins to hate him from that time. Hareton is a pitiful boy. He does not see his mother and his father indulges in alcohol since his mother dies. His father even does not want to see him. So Hareton has never enjoyed parent’s love and family warmth that a normal child should have. Like Heathcliff, he also wants to have a strong longing to get happiness like as other children have possession. When Heathcliff defeats his father and control Wuthering Heights, he begins to live with Heathcliff. It is clear that he does not be treated well. He also goes through most under the control of Heathcliff. Even though he grows up in such an evil environment, he never gives in. To draw a comparison with Hareton, Cathy’s suffering is much more tragic. Of course in some aspects, Cathy is far happier and luckier than Hareton. She has got affection and protection which is from her father and Nelly. Her body and soul grow up in friendly environment. Compared with Cathy’s mother, she is gentler, more fervent and generous. I think the most thing which impresses on me is her enthusiasm to her dear father. We can see a daughter’s love to her dear father. She is not only a good daughter but also a kind wife. When Heathcliff forces her to marry his ill son, she is so kind that she does not refuse. Cathy is sympathy with Heathcliff’s son, Linton, rather than loves him. Even though she does not love him, Cathy spends her most time to look after him. She has dedicated herself to help him. It is known that after Cathy marries Linton, she lives as a prisoner in Wuthering Heights under the control of Heathcliff. It is no doubt that the Cathy lives in a hard way.

At the very beginning, the relation between Cathy and Hareton seems bad. There seems a big gap between them in their characters and education. Cathy has receives a rather good education while Hareton knows little words even his name. At the first time, Cathy does not admit Hareton as her cousin because of his illiteracy. Hareton’s world is so harsh to her that she can not accept him. As a matter fact, the bad relationship between the two cousins should be blamed to Heathcliff, because Heathcliff never allows the two cousins to have a chance to develop their friendship. And it is also because of Heathcliff’s bad treatment to Cathy, she thinks that Hareton is heartless as Heathcliff. But Hareton is attracted by Cathy’s beauty and knowledge. So he studies hard so that one day he can come close to Cathy’s spiritual world. He hopes that one day Cathy can accept him in the bottom of her heart. Every step is achieved by his great expense, but his effort is overlook by Cathy. Hareton feels disgraceful and is hurt deeply by Cathy. From then on he does not give smile to Cathy and speak to her. Cathy is busy looking after her dying husband all day and night. She can hardly have time to look after herself. When Linton dies, she has no one to talk with. She feels lonely every day. Heathcliff treats her badly too. There is no friend and no book. It is clearly that the life is boring to her. With time going, she finds the good characters of Hareton. Cathy and Hareton make friends with each other. They begin to learn and read books together. Cathy helps Hareton learn words sincerely. She is a warm and patient and Hareton is an excellent student. Hareton will bring beautiful flowers to Cathy when he comes back from outside. When Heathcliff make Cathy suffer pain, Hareton will stand out to help her. So Cathy begins to like him gradually. They talk about interesting things, read famous books and share the fun of reading with him. They seem a happy couple and fall in love with each other.

Their love flower begins to bloom as beautiful rose. The happy couple are bathed in the warm love and their love will thrive in it full bloom. From the love of Cathy and Hareton, Emily wants to tell us that love can not be conquered by anything and love can be never buried by hate. Love changes from hate to sweet love.

Ⅲ. Two Kinds of Hate

A. The Hate between Healthcliff and Catherine

The love and hate between Healthcliff and Catherine is the theme of Wuthering Heights. Love make them care each other and make them happy, but also make them hate each other and torture each other. They live with happiness and pain of love together. Their tragic love and characters make them have tragic life. They are good partners in childhood. They are always playing happily in moors, and they go out together and do every thing together. You can always find them go everywhere together. When they grow old, their relationship begins to change. The relationship between Healthcliff and Catherine is from good friend to sweet lovers. With the things going, they become enemies and even want to destroy each other.

Healthcliff is a poor and fatherless boy. When people read Wuthering Heights, they will regard Healthcliff as “an incarnation of evil qualities: implacable hate, ingratitude, cruelty, falsehood, selfishness and revenge” (Snider 2006). The purpose that Mr. Earnshan brings Healthcliff to his family is to let his two children learn to be kind to others. Mr. Earnshan treats Healthcliff as his own child and loves him dearly. However, after Mr. Earnshan dies, Healthcliff does not get the love that everyone deserves. Cathy is his only love in the family, and she is the only person that he can believe. Healthcliff and Catherine live happily until Catherine meets Edgar. Catherine makes good friends with Edgar and his sister and she spends most time with them. She has little time with Healthcliff. The most important thing is that Catherine begins to like the super life style in Thrushcross Grange .After she stays at Thrushcross Grange five weeks, she has a great change. She likes the way of life in upper social class. So she thinks that Edgar Linton can give what Heathcliff can not give her. We all know that money is every thing to many people in that time. Catherine is also too. As other girls, she also wants to have property and has high situation. When she comes back her attitude to Heathcliff has also changed. She really knows that she will never marry Heathcliff. Even though she loves him deeply, she can not marry him. Heathcliff is destroyed and promised to get revenge on her.

Threes years later Catherine marries Edgar, and at the same time Heathcliff comes back with much money. He becomes a cruel and unfeeling people. First he marries Edgar’s sister, Isabella. Heathcliff treats her badly after marrying. As Fang ping says that Heathcliff is like the tyrant and possesses force when Heathcliff wants to revenge on the people who have hurt him. Finally, Isabella leaves away and gives birth to a son of Heathcliff. From then on, Healthcliff and Catherine do everything to destroy each other. Catherine is so sad and hurt that she becomes ill and regrets marrying Edgar. Her marriage to Edgar is a betrayal of her nature and Healthcliff. She knows that Healthcliff is the most important part of her life. She even can not live without him. But she wants to get social status and popularity which draw her toward Edgar. She does not love Edgar, but her glory heart wants to control her. In the delirium, she suffers before death, she longs for freedom. Catherine’s illness and death are perhaps a natural and predictable result of her life when she moves from Wuthering Heights to Thrushcross Grange, by not going with heart but she closes the door life that she had with Healthcliff. Once the way of life is chosen, there is no going back, although she realizes the error of her ways. She has placed herself in a situation in which only death can make her relieve. In death, she has returned to nature and regains her freedom. She dies after giving birth to a girl, Cathy. After the death of Catherine, there is no smile and no happiness in Healthcliff’s life. His existence is then focused totally on exacting revenge. His revenge is related to the next generation of Hareton and Cathy. Revenge is the only reason that makes him continue to live. At that time Healthcliff’s soul is revenge. Just as what Ma Xinguo has said that the kernel of man’s soul takes the determinate function in man’s whole psychological configuration. So when his revenge is over, his heart will be death and his life also ends. Healthcliff uses his revenge as an activity that diverts him from suicide (Marsh 70).

B. The Hate between Healthcliff and Catherine’Brother

When Healthcliff come in the family of Earnshans, Hindley, Catherine’s brother, begins to hate him. Mr. Earnshan loves Healthcliff and gives some precious affection to him. Hindley is jealous of and hates him. He tortures Healthcliff when they are young. Hindley is set off to boarding school to study. Hindley hates him deeply from then on. Hindley never comes back until his father dies. After Mr. Earnshan dies, Hindley controls Wuthering Heights. He begins to do everything to destroy Healthcliff. He does not allow his sister to play with Healthcliff. He let Healthcliff sleep with horses. He beats Healthcliff whenever he wants. Healthcliff suffers most at the hands of Hindley. Because of Hindley’s cruel treatment and Catherine’s betrayal Healthcliff can not bear any more. So Healthcliff leaves Wuthering Heights. He goes away for three years and gets some wealth so that he could achivev his plan of revenge. After Healthcliff’s leaving, Hindley’s dear wife dies when she gives birth to a son. Hindley is very sad after his wife dies. He does nothing and even does not look after his baby son. He even thinks that his son makes his wife lose life. So he hates his son. Hindley drinks and gambles every day and night. Nigle Balcshin points out that there are too many examples of men that have been their own executioner, and that have made hard shrift to be so. When Healthcliff comes back, he easily takes over ownership of Wuthering Heights. Healthcliff begins to destroy Hindley as Hindley has done to him. When Heathcliff later become master of Wuthering Heights, He begins to take vengeance on Hareton, Hindley’s son, in much the same way he has been mistreated. To revenge on Hindley Earnshaw’s cruel treatment to him, Heathcliff determines to do everything to destroy Hindley and his son Hareton. He never teaches him how to read and write, never helps him to correct his bad habits and never lead him to learn the value of himself and the world. He treats Hareton as a slave and let him lose a normal life. Heathcliff’s revenge even refers to the next generation. Edgar’s daughter Cathy is forced to marry Heathcliff’s sickly son Linton. Through his son, Heathcliff means to own Edgar Linton’s property at Thrushcross Grange and get Cathy’s fortune. Even though Heathcliff is going near to his revenge, Heathcliff never finds peace through his revenge. In fact, the only time he truly finds happiness is when he gives up his plan for revenge.

Ⅳ. The Reasons of Hate

A. Love

Revenge is not from nowhere. It must have specific reasons. We all know that Heathcliff’s revenge is mainly caused by his extreme love to Catherine and also Catherine’s betrayal of him. That is to say that love is the root of hate. Actually, Catherine’s betrayal of Heathcliff is due to her personality and her life statue in the world. Her betray decides her tragedy finally. She thinks that wealth is more important to him than love. As Yang Jingyuan points out that in her eyes flowers are brighter and more attractive than the rose which blooms in the heath for her. We should also notice that Catherine loves Heathcliff with her heart and she regards him as herself. But her love to Edgar is just because of his wealth, statue and power. Catherine’s fatal illness and her death was a direct result of her realization that she has destroyed the natural order of things. She is departed from her dear love Heathcliff and she is unable to stay with him. As Heathcliff marries other woman and he doesmany thing to hurt Catherine’s heart, so she becomes ill at the Grange. In addition, she is ties down by the upper social class of Thrushcross Grange and longing for freedom of her natural life with Heathcliff. Unlike Heathcliff, Edgar is unable to control the spirit in Catherine’s mind. The tragedy of Catherine, in another word, was that she loved Heathcliff but married Edgar. She married the one she did not loved instead of the one she loved, because her choice of Heathcliff would mean frustration and alternative. Desire swelling not only hurts nature, others but also human beings themselves, and make them lose puerility, immaculacy and goodness(王诺 194). It is difficult for Catherine to make this choice at that time. One side is the tender and another is the station of life. But the later is more a great temptation to her. To a woman, wealth can be more important than love. When she can not realize the precious love to her, she will think the fortune is what she aspires after.

The Social Estate System

Wuthering Heights was published during the Industrial Revolution that a time of great economic changes in which workers fought for fair conditions in the workplace. Owing to the fast developing economy, the rich became richer while the poor become poorer, therefore, people were divided into different classes. It was revealed in manners, speech, behaviour, dressing, education, concept, statue and other aspects. Although wealth was not the only factor which decides one’s class, it truly played an important role in that society. Especially the girl hoped to become rich and lived more comfortable by marrying rich man. Here in Wuthering Heights, the tragedy between Heathcliff and Catherine also owes in Catherine’s awareness of the great social gap between them, and her jealously of Edgar’s wealth. Nearly everyone in the novel tries his best to get wealth or money oriented. For example, Heathcliff leaves Wuthering Heights to make money. When he comes back with money, he becomes a gentle man. He quickly receives respect from other people. All the characters, both men and women which live in this world are trying to change their situation, and saving themselves. But, in this competition with the society, the poor and the weak are always the losers. The poor will suffer more than others who are richer than them. Therefore, we believe that the social estate system is an important cause of the tragedy because once people live in a society. In front of the society, the staunch Heathcliff is helpless and weak. The brutal society destroys him by ending his gentle character with a vain girl and forcing him an avenger. From reading the novel of Wuthering Heights we can see the social estate system does deeply hurt many people. Especially the poor suffer most. If the poor want to have a good fortune and have a special life, they must go through many pains. So we can know that the social estate system plays an important role in the tragic love story, and it is an important part in people’s life.

Selfishness in Human Nature

As we all know that selfishness is the essence of human nature. Selfishness is an important aspect for us to recognize and make a difference from others. It helps us to know other people’s characters well. Human being’s essential nature- selfishness is another rootstock that causes the revenge in the novel. Selfishness is in everyone’s character in some way or others. Catherine’s love reflects the grasping for riches, the station of life and authority by hurting others and Heathcliff’s love represents the rigid, ferocious and obligatory demand which pays back from Catherine. When facing love and grasping, most people would selfishly turn traitor their love that is a kind of men’s spiritual demand and chose the material benefits which could satisfy their greed, because they always regard riches, the station of life and authority as media to pursuing their own happiness. Both loves of Heathcliff and Catherine are selfish which makes public that selfishness is the essence of human nature. It is the self-love which causes the cruel change of their characters in human nature. Catherine’s self-love makes Heathcliff lose himself and even his life, and Heathcliff selfishness’s self-love leads calamity to his dear love Catherine, his wife and son and every people who is around him. All tragedies that have happened are due to the selfishness in human nature. Selfishness is existence in every one’s heart. When some temptations appear in front of us, the selfishness will be expressed. If people can not control their material benefits, their selfishness will control them and hurt other people who even are their dear loves. Especially it is the times of wealth, statue and power. Money is everything to the people who are seeking the life of upper society. Sometimes they have to use their selfishness to hurt others and then they can get wealth, statue or power.


In the theme of Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte tells us two kinds of love and two kinds of hate. Love and hate is also the theme of people’s life. Love and hate are always surviving together. It is known that hate comes after love. In the novel of Wuthering Heights we can see that the love between Healthcliff and Catherine is crazy as well as hate. With the plot of the novel going, the dear love is buried by the burning hate. But in another kind of love which is between Hareton and Cathy embodies us a fact that love can defeat hate in the end. After reading Wuthering Heights, we can see the burning flames of love and hate between Healthcliff and Catherine. In the next generation, we can see that a beautiful flower of love which is between Hareton and Cathy is blooming bright and brilliant. Emily Bronte uses the happy love to make end the story. She also wants to us that love is still powerful no matter how the hate is. The reasons which cause the hate have many aspects. In this paper, for example we just analyze the reasons from hate, social estate system and selfishness in human nature. Of course, there are many other reasons. After reading the tragic love story, we should learn more than love and hate. We should can learn that the tragic love has also reflects the poor’s hard life when they want to own what the rich’s have. The poor have to suffer much to get wealth, statue, and power. To the plot of the novel, Wuthering Heights is regarded as a love and revenge novel. Heathcliff’s love is just a one-side wish. Catherine, besides loving herself, loves Edgar. But on the other hand, he becomes an avenger because what he has suffered in his miserable childhood and his love is betrayed. Wuthering Heights is about vivid love story which is gloomy and weird in the main, which is mostly concerned with the spirit world. With time going, she grows up and she must be confronted with a hard choice between Heathcliffand Edgar. Even though she knows clearly Heathcliff is her true love while Edgar is her light love, she still chooses Edgar as her husband in order to become an honorable with Edgar. She knows she is completely wrong and makes her life in a hard way. Catherine regards Heathcliff as herself and her whole world. But Catherine’s betrayal makes Heathcliff hurt deeply and leaves him away. In order to give vent to his desire, he transfers his love to hate, even revenge. At the end of his revenge, he gives up his revenge and dies for the extreme love and hate. They conflict with each other until love defeats hate at last. In conclusion, Heathcliff and Catherine will always love each other. And because they love each other so much, it takes them to the worst place of all, their death.

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